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Pictured is a Delta IV rocket launch from Cape Canaveral on November 21^{st}, 2010. The image is a 20 second exposure taken at dusk, shot from about 100 miles west of the launch site. The launch placed a classified payload in orbit for the United States Air Force.

Difficult but not impossible to catch against the dawn or dusk sky, spotting an extreme crescent moon can be a challenge. The slender crescent pictured was shot 30 minutes before sunrise when the Moon was less than 20 hours away from New. A true feat of visual athletics to catch, a good pair of binoculars or a well aimed wide field telescopic view can help with the hunt.

The Sun is our nearest star, and goes through an 11-year cycle of activity. This image was taken via a properly filtered telescope, and shows the Sun as it appeared during its last maximum peak in 2003. This was during solar cycle #23, a period during which the Sun hurled several large flares Earthward. The next solar cycle is due to peak around 2013-14.

Located in the belt of the constellation Orion, Messier 42, also known as the Orion Nebula is one of the finest deep sky objects in the northern hemisphere sky. Just visible as a faint smudge to the naked eye on a clear dark night, the Orion Nebula is a sure star party favorite, as it shows tendrils of gas contrasted with bright stars. M42 is a large stellar nursery, a star forming region about 1,000 light years distant.

Orbiting the planet in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) every 90 minutes, many people fail to realize that you can see the International Space Station (ISS) from most of the planet on a near-weekly basis. In fact, the ISS has been known to make up to four visible passes over the same location in one night. The image pictured is from the Fourth of July, 2011 and is a 20 second exposure of a bright ISS pass.

Next to the Sun, the two brightest objects in the sky are the Moon and the planet Venus. In fact, when Venus is favorably placed next to the Moon, it might just be possible to spot the two in the daytime. Another intriguing effect known as earthshine or ashen light is also seen in the image on the night side of the Moon; this is caused by sunlight reflected back off of the Earth towards our only satellite.

A mosaic of three images taken during the total lunar eclipse of December 21st, 2010. The eclipse occurred the same day as the winter solstice. The curve and size of the Earth’s shadow is apparent in the image.

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## Review Magnificent Mistakes in Mathematics by Alfred S. Posamentier & Ingmar Lehmann

On sale now!We’ve all be there. Standing at the chalkboard, (remember chalkboards?) we’ve all forgotten to “carry the two,” or made the cardinal sin of mathematics by attempting to divide by zero. Hey, it happens to the best of us sometimes.

So it’s comforting to realize that the rock stars of mathematics are prone to slip up on occasion as well. Only in their case, their mistakes may be so monumental as to approach greatness. In this week’s review, authors Alfred S. Posamentier and Ingmar Lehmann venture into the exciting realm of mathematical errors with

Magnificent Mistakes in Mathematics. Out this month from Prometheus Books,Magnificent Mistakesis a fascinating look at good equations gone bad and some of the brain-bending results.Fans of this site and Posamentier & Lehmann’s work will also recall our reviews of their fascinating works,

The Glorious Golden Ratio&The Secrets of Trianglesa while back.The authors of

Magnificent Mistakeshave combed history, art, and of course, mathematics to bring you some fabulous blunders. Some are legendary, but a great many of them we’ve never heard off.Did you know that there is an error in the calculation of

Piinscribed in the Palais de la Decouverte in Paris that you can visit today? Or that a postage stamp honoring physicist Enrico Fermi issued in 2001 actually contains a mathematical error on the chalk board behind him? Or that the Goldbach conjecture, which states that “Every odd number greater than 5 is the sum of three primes” is yet to be solved?It’s worth keeping a paper and pencil handy reading this book, as you can figure and check many of these errors and assertions yourself. Aristotle, Galileo, Leibniz and more are just some of the scientific and mathematical luminaries guilty of a mathematical mistake or three from time to time. Many, such as Kepler and Sir Isaac Newton, were lured by the siren song of numerology or chased mathematical rabbits down dead ends. Newton himself became enmeshed in the numerology of the Bible, while Kepler spent much of his life chasing after the perceived link between geometrical perfect solids and the planets.

Other classics, such as Fermat’s Last Theorem, the hunt for prime numbers, and the Fibonacci sequence are presented. It’s fascinating to think that the jury is still out on whether or not prime numbers continue into infinity. The current largest discovered prime number is 2

^{57,885,161}-1 —that’s a 17,425,170 digit number, just discovered earlier this year on January 25th— and it’s interesting to note that they’re spaced farther apart the larger they get. And speaking of primes, efforts and errors still persist in the realm of Legendre’s Conjecture, which tells us that “for all natural numbersn, between n^{2}and (N+1)^{2}there exists at least one prime number.In the world of the astronomical, Poincare’s conjuncture and attempts to solve the three-body problem (which has applications in the realm of celestial mechanics) is also addressed.

The book is divided up into mistakes in arithmetic, algebra, geometry, statistics and much more. It’s also chalk full of some classics and “should-be classics,” both solved and unsolved, from the Monty Hall dilemma to the Four-Color Map conjecture and many more.

Don’t be scared off by the “mathiness…”

Magnificent Mistakes in Mathematicsis an intriguing read. I’ll bet that even old hands at mathematics will find something new here… a great opportunity as the school year begins, giving us a chance once again to “go figure!”