October 31, 2014

08.06.10: Titan and the Case of the Missing Acetylene.

Titan as imaged by Cassini in 2007. (Credit: NASA/ESA/Cassini).

Titan as imaged by Cassini in 2007. (Credit: NASA/ESA/Cassini).

  

   It started with two papers… as of late, much good and bad science journalism has been committed to the mysteries of Saturn’s largest moon, Titan.  A photochemical smog shrouded world, Titan is a dynamic place, and would easily qualify as a planet in its own right if it were in a solo orbit about the Sun. Titan has only begun giving up its secrets in the past decade; a close flyby of Voyager 1 in 1980 revealed an orange-brown disk devoid of detail. The arrival of the joint ESA-NASA Cassini Huygens mission has led to a wealth of data, as Cassini has performed a series of close mapping flybys of the moon and even deposited the successful Huygens probe on the surface in early 2005. Now, two papers from the Journal Icarus and the Journal of Astrophysical Research describe a curious anomaly; some process is consuming expected acetylene (HC2H) on the surface of Titan. Or something… but wait, let’s not got shouting, “Scientists find life on Titan!” We’re talking an indicator to a possible form of life. The studies site data gathered by Cassini’s infrared spectrometer and ion and neutral mass spectrometer as it swept by the moon. As a matter of fact, Cassini has just completed a 1,270 mile pass recently on June 5th. The process in question is the accumulation of hydrogen molecules high in the atmosphere and raining down to the lakes of methane and ethane coating the surface.  Evidence supports the idea that Titan should be coated with organic molecules, not to be confused with full fledged life itself (old school media take note!). Clearly, something is sequestering the expected acetylene that should be forming… could it be methane-based life? Keep in mind, Titan is a cold place; daytime temps reach a balmy -290 degrees Fahrenheit. Perhaps there may be warmer, as of yet undiscovered pockets of geological activity, but the very idea of methane based life is very hypothetical. Such life forms would be vastly different than what we know here on Earth, and acetylene is on the short list of oxygen-metabolism substitutes. Mark Allen at NASA’s Astrobiology Institute points out that the lack of surface hydrogen and acetylene may have a non-biological cause; “Scientific conservatism suggests that a biological explanation should be the last choice after all non-biological explanations are addressed.” Other processes, such as bombardment by radiation or cosmic rays (remember Titan doesn’t have an ozone layer) or the chemical action of minerals could play a role.

So, what should the man on the street take away from this? That Titan is a fascinating and dynamic place, a place in our solar system where things are happening. Clearly, there is more to Titan’s methane- fueled hydrologic cycle than we currently understand, and a spacecraft such as the proposed Titan Survey mission that would put a dirigible-based probe in the atmosphere would go a long way towards solving the “Life on Titan” puzzle. For now, it’ll just have to go on our “Mars-Europa” short-list of interesting places to visit… but don’t believe the “Aliens found on Titan!” news hype just yet!