October 22, 2017

14.04.10: Milankovitch Cycles…On Titan?


(Credit: NASA/JPL/University of Arizona).

(Credit: NASA/JPL/University of Arizona).

An amazing sight; sunlight reflected off the Kraken Mare caught by Cassini! 

   NASA’s Cassini spacecraft has revealed an elusive mystery on the surface of Titan; namely, why does the northern hemisphere of the large moon contain numerous lake basins, while in the south they’re relatively scarce? Now, scientists at Caltech working with JPL think they may have an answer. These lakes show up as bright (empty) and dark (filled) patches as the Cassini spacecraft pings them with its Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR). Of course, on Titan, the hydrologic chemical of choice is liquid ethane and methane, and it is thought that some transport mechanism results in a net flow imbalance between the two hemispheres. Seasons on Titan last roughly 15 years as it dances around Saturn in its 29.5 year orbit about the Sun. But simple seasonal drainage of about a meter per year couldn’t empty the 100 meter-plus deep basins in a single season. This also doesn’t account for the overall disparity in number of basins seen, both filled and unfilled. Instead, scientists point towards the eccentricity of Saturn’s orbit as the possible cause. Saturn’s eccentricity is 0.055, or a little over 5% deviation from a perfect circle. This would make for periodic inequalities in the seasons, much like what occurs on Earth. For example, the perihelion of Earth actually occurs in northern hemisphere winter, somewhat ameliorating the severity of the seasons. But the variation of eccentricity coupled with the obliquity of the planetary spin axis and the precession of the equinoxes can vary over geologic time scales, causing variations in the climate. This is known as the Milankovitch cycle, and is thought to be a major contributing factor to the onset of Ice Ages. On Titan, a similar process is thought to occur, resulting in a net imbalance over thousands of years in the methane flow cycles between the two hemispheres. We may now simply be observing Titan during an epoch when seasonal methane pooling favors the northern hemisphere. Whatever the case, Titan is proving to be a fascinating and changing world deserving of further scrutiny.

13.04.10- Mammoth Extinction vs. Impact Theory.

Woolly Mammoths: hunted to extinction?


   An Ice Age extinction mystery has just got more complicated. North America used to be home to some amazing mega-animal life, including wooly mammoths, saber-toothed cats the size of grizzly bears, and armadillos the size of Volkswagens. Then, around the time period known as the Younger Dryas about 12,900 years ago, a mass continent-wide extinction event occurred. Key theories include massive climate change, a large cometary impact, and that greatest of all predators, man. Now, research by Jacuelyn Gill of the University of Wisconsin has dealt a blow (pun intended) to the cometary impact hypothesis. Key evidence for a large airburst over the Laurentide ice sheet comes in the form of an iridium layer seen in the sedimentary deposits laid down at the time, as well as the discovery of minuscule nano-diamonds generated by the heat and blast of the explosion. The problem is, Gill’s studies of fungus spores found in fossilized dung finds the extinction event was already underway well before the impact, around 14,000 years ago. In addition, a mastodon skeleton in the Cincinnati museum has been found to have been dated from circa 10,055 years ago, well after the impact! This seems to put the appearance of Clovis man and overhunting as the key to large mammal extinction in the Ice Age North American scene. Perhaps even a combination of the factors was the cause. The concept of the Early Dryas extinction is unique because it is the most recent extinction event (other than the one we’re currently undergoing!) along a timeline of multiple events throughout the history of life on Earth. Being the most recent, perhaps more evidence for complicating factors is simply lying around for us to find. This debate is thus the hottest topic of all large extinction events. And one has to wonder; what would life in modern U.S. suburbia and camping trips be like if there were still saber-toothed cats around?