November 21, 2014

Review: The Cosmic Cocktail by Katherine Freese

A stellar recipe!

It’s the hottest topic in modern astrophysics. What exactly is dark matter and dark energy? It is kind of amazing to think that astrophysicists do not yet completely understand just what most of the universe is made of. [Read more...]

Review: What Are Gamma-ray Bursts? by Joshua S. Bloom.

Out from Princeton Press!

In 1888, astronomer Simon Newcomb made the now infamous quip that “we are probably nearing the limit of all we can know about astronomy…” One has to wonder what these 19th century scientists would make of the wonderful cosmological menagerie of black holes, energetic galactic nuclei, and the topic of today’s review. [Read more...]

Review: How Old is the Universe? By David A. Weintraub.

Out from Princeton Press.

Probably the toughest questions an astronomer ever has to field with the public are those in cosmology. How old/how big/how far are truly mind bending questions, and difficult to explain to the average man on the street in sound-bite style. This week, we look at David Weintraub’s latest, How Old is the Universe? out by Princeton Press. Fans of this site will remember our review of Is Pluto a Planet? also by Mr. Weintraub a few years back. [Read more...]

Review: The Telescope by Geoff Anderson.

Few inventions are as near and dear to our hearts as that of the telescope. Before its invention, astronomy was scarcely better than its pseudo-science companion of astrology in its knowledge of predicting the universe as it truly is. In this week’s review, we’ll look at The Telescope by Geoff Anderson out from Princeton Press as it traces the history of this noble instrument, its origins, the theory of optics, and our present day understandings and the exciting realm of telescopes yet to come.

Out from Princeton University Press!

Out from Princeton University Press!

Think you know everything about telescopes? The Telescope will take you through designs from classical refractors to Coudè focus complexities. This would serve as a good 101 for anyone thinking of building or even purchasing a telescope, as a lot of the optical basics are discussed. You can even skip through chapters, and the author even suggests that you don’t have to struggle through chapters on interferometry (but of course we did!) unless you really want to.

Stately Flandrau Observatories' 14"... (Photo by Author).

The stately Flandrau Observatory 14-inch. (Photo by Author).

The study of how early astronomers actually functioned always personally fascinates me. We all know the discoveries of Galileo, but just how did he make those refractors in a renaissance era work shop? The absurdity of some of the focal lengths used was astounding; this was required to overcome the fringes on chromatic aberration until 2-element crown and flint objectives were perfected. And don’t forget, they had to handcraft eye-pieces, as well. Just how many modern day telescope makers do that?

The 7 1/2" Merz Refractor of Quito Observatory. (Photo by Author).

The 7 1/2″ Merz Refractor of Quito Observatory. (Photo by Author).

The evolution of site selection and observatory construction is also discussed; it’s a generally underappreciated fact that seeing and turbulence makes up about 90% of your ultimate astronomical success. Early telescope users were content to perch their tubes on the ledge of a study window. It’s only been in the last century or so that site selection prior to observatory construction has really matured. In the modern era, the effects of encroaching light pollution also has to be accounted for. Telescopes have gone from backyard curiosities to behemoths of national significance.

One mother of a scope; OWL. (Credit: ESO).

One Mother of a scope… OWL. (Credit: ESO).

The modern era of scopes is also traced, from the Hale and Keck telescopes to the Hubble Space Telescope, which is appropriately given its own chapter. The chapter “When Good Telescopes go Bad” is particularly illuminating, as it demonstrates the engineering challenges that seem to plague every great instrument. It’s been said that it’s never truly a great scientific or engineering breakthrough until someone has had a nervous breakdown, and building cutting edge telescopes is certainly a case in point.  The author also addresses the innovative methods the have been developed to squeeze as much information as possible out of every photon of light. Just think, we can know speed, direction, composition and more just from “tasting” starlight. This was first developed by the breakthrough of spectroscopy, and further refinements such as interferometry and adaptive optics have pushed the envelope even further. adaptive optics itself used to be classified, as it was used primarily to peek at Russian payloads in low-Earth orbit. Some of this technology is truly amazing; for example, did you know it’s possible to “record” a conversation in a room just by measuring via laser the vibrations imparted on the windows? To this effect, the Oval Office actually employs “shakers” on its outer panes, probably not much different than the vibrate mode on your cell phone.

An "backyard" scope that would have been the envy of many of the astronomers of yore... (Photo by Author).

A “backyard” scope that many earlier astronomers would have been envious of… (Photo by Author).

A look at the key discoveries of the telescope and some of the more bizarre and unusual telescopes is also given treatment; two of our favorite are the use of liquid metal (mercury in a precisely rotated dish!) telescopes, and of course, the Laser Interferometry Gravitational wave Observatory, a “telescope” used to hunt for gravity waves.

And that’s just the beginning. The future of telescopes will see the James Webb Space Telescope, mega observatories such as the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT) and the 100-meter OverWhelmingly large telescope (OWL) and perhaps even more exotic arrays such as the Terrestrial Planet Finder or a large crater-based instrument on the Lunar far-side.

Do give the Telescope a look if you are thinking of buying, building, or just have a passion for these grand old instruments. Telescopes represent the cutting edge of human technology, and never fail to inspire. And as astronomers, observatories are the closest thing to a cathedral to the stars that we possess!

A modern day wonder! (Photo by Author).

A modern day marvel! (Photo by Author).

Review: Einstein for the 21st Century.

Out from Princeton University Press!

Out from Princeton University Press!

No 20th century icon is as instantly recognizable as Albert Einstein. Folks who know nothing of General, let alone Special Relativity can identify his lovable mad scientist visage, and his famous equation E=MC^2 adorns everything from t-shirts to bumper stickers. Einstein even beat out such notables as Gandhi (whom he admired) for Time magazine’s Man of the Century. Einstein for the 21st century: His legacy in Science, Art, and Modern Culture, by Peter Galison, Gerald Holton, and Silvan S. Schweber and out from Princeton Press explores the far reaching effects the man has had on modern culture and science. [Read more...]