November 24, 2017

19.06.10: A New Breed of Supernova?

Discovery image of SN 2005E. (Credit: SDSS/Lick Observatory).

Discovery image of SN 2005E. (Credit: SDSS/Lick Observatory).

 

   Every student of Astrophysics 101 soon learns that there are two main types of supernovae; Type 1a, which occur when a white dwarf star accretes matter from a bloated companion, passes the Chandrasekhar Limit and explodes, and Type II, when a star 8 times the mass of our Sun or larger reaches the end of its fusion burning life and promptly explodes… but are these snapshots of the final phases of stellar evolution really that neat and tidy? Recently, evidence has been mounting that there may be other sub-branches to the supernova tale, and not just the two flavors and the sub-categories that we learned in school. The first round of evidence comes from a team at the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics and their study of supernova 2005E. This blast occurred in the galactic halo of the galaxy NGC 1032 in the constellation Cetus, not your typical supernova breeding territory. Supernovae are usually seen in rich star forming regions, not in metal poor outer galactic suburbs. This event was a fizzle, ejecting only 300 times the mass of Jupiter into its nearby environs.

The mystery deepened as a team from Hiroshima University released their results of a study of another supernova, 2005cz. Located in the elliptical galaxy NGC 4589, this eruption was also only 20% as bright as models predict, showing that while the initial mass may have been just above what was required for a Type II supernova, it beared none of the classic hallmarks of either species of events. Both of these supernovae, along with 6 others recorded, show a high concentration of calcium in their spectra, a hint that they may not be related to either of the previously known types.

So, what’s going on? Do we need to re-write all those old astrophysical texts? It’s unlikely that a progenitor star migrated all the way to a galactic halo region in its short life span simply to explode. A possible scenario could be a pair of binary white dwarfs (or do you say dwarves?) in a tight orbit, with one stealing the helium shell of another and bursting. Spectra taken of both events seem to support this scenario… this mystery may have a tie-in with the seeming lack of “Type 1A’s in waiting” mentioned in this space in an article on a recent survey of nearby galaxies… will this hybrid style of supernova become known as “Type III” or “Type 2.5”?

06.11.09:A New Type of Supernova?

Astronomers at  the University of California at Berkley may have added a new type of supernova to the list. Typical type I supernovae consist of a carbon-oxygen white dwarf accreting matter from a companion star until a runaway reaction occurs, while type II supernovae involve a collapse of a star perhaps nine times as massive as our Sun. Recently, astronomers uncovered evidence that an extragalactic supernova previously classified as a type II may in fact deserve a class of its own. Named SN 2002bj, this exploding star exhibited the characteristics of a garden variety nova, such as the brief flare up of in-falling hydrogen, but created an explosion 1,000 times more massive. In the case of SN 2002bj, however, the flash also had a conspicuous absence of hydrogen, with instead a strong helium flash and the presence of vanadium in its spectra, a first for a supernova. Theoretical models suggest that this may have been a binary white dwarf pair, with one feeding the other a steady flow of helium until it reached the collapse limit and burst. Also, unlike typical type Ia supernovae, the white dwarf involved survived the explosion. Another unusual signature to this supernova was the way it rapidly faded from sight in about 20 days, about four times faster than usual. SN 2002bj is located in the galaxy NGC 1821 and was spotted in February 2002. Does the classification of supernovae need tweaking?