November 24, 2014

26.07.11: Naming P4; A Humble Proposal.

The many worlds of Pluto! (Credit: NASA/HST/SETI Institute).

By now, you’ve heard the news and read the tweets; Pluto has a fourth moon to accompany Charon, Nix, & Hydra. The discovery announcement came last week from a team of astronomers led by the SETI Institutes’ Mark Showalter utilizing the Hubble Space Telescope. The observation campaign is part of an ongoing effort to survey the environs of Pluto in anticipation of NASA’s New Horizons flyby in July of 2015. [Read more...]

Review: How I Killed Pluto & Why it Had it Coming by Mike Brown.

Target: Pluto?

Caltech Astronomer Mike Brown is on the cutting edge of modern day “faint fuzzy” hunting at the fringe of the solar system and has found himself at the epicenter of several scientific battles over the past decade. In How I Killed Pluto & Why it Had it Coming, Dr. Brown takes us behind the scenes of his discoveries and, after a brief history of solar system exploration, takes us on a deeply personal tale of modern discovery and a fascinating look at how modern astronomy in the Internet era gets done. Intertwined with the tale of successive discoveries in the outer solar system is an intimate look at Mike’s personal world, his family, and how a scientist and his family operates… just think, how many of us personally know a true scientist, in our families or on the block? [Read more...]

26.04.11: New Horizons and the Hunt for KBO’s.

Artist’s Concept of New Horizons at a KBO. (Credit: Dan Durda SwRI/NASA/JPL).

A sky survey has begun this month for a very special mission. In July 2015, NASA’s New Horizons mission will whiz past the Pluto-Charon system on its way out of the solar system. Scientists will collect data on the pair for a frenzied few days…and then what? [Read more...]

23.04.11: A Plutonian Atmosphere.

New Horizons at Pluto, an Artist’s Conception. (Credit: NASA/JPL/Johns Hopkins). 

As the New Horizons spacecraft approaches the distant world, Pluto is beginning to seem more planet-like by the day. Recently a team including astrobiologist Jane Graves used time on telescopes perched atop Hawaii’s Mauna Kea complex to reveal an intriguing constituent of the Plutonian atmosphere; carbon monoxide. [Read more...]

AstroEvent(s): A Week of Moons, Tri-Conjunctions, & Lunar Features!

Venus, Vesta, & Pluto in a 5 degree field of view. (Created by Author in Starry Night).

This week offers a grab bag of unique events, far from the humdrum wide conjunctions and difficult to see pairings. The action starts on February 8th with a rare chance to see Saturn’s moons in 1 -8 order. This occurs in a narrow window from 19:01-19:38 UT, and thus favors the Asian Far East. The planet currently rises around 11PM local, and a majority of the moons should still be in order from your corresponding latitude. [Read more...]

The Discovery of Eris & its Implications.

Eris & Dysnomia as seen from Hubble. (Credit: NASA/HST/ESA M.Brown).

   As 2010 draws to a close, a quiet discovery was made recently about a fascinating solar system object. January 5th, 2011 will mark the six year anniversary of the discovery of 2003 UB313, which became provisionally known as the planet Xena and then later demoted to the dwarf planet Eris. [Read more...]

16.05.10- Gliese 710: A Future Stellar Threat?

gl710_skyview

Gliese 710 inbound…(Credit: The Sloan Digital Sky Survey).

   Our quiet corner of the local galaxy may be in for a future interloper. A possible solar system side-swipe comes in the form of Gliese 710, an unassuming +10 magnitude orange dwarf star currently 63 light years distant in the constellation Serpens. As we swirl around the center of our galaxy, stellar neighbors come and go like in-laws during your favorite respective obligatory familial holiday season. The low proper motion of this star hid its true nature until about a decade ago; generally, the lower the apparent motion, the more distant the star. Gliese 710, however, fits into a different class; a star that shows a low apparent motion because it’s moving towards us. Closest approach has been calculated by astronomer Joan Garcia-Sanchez of JPL as about 1.3 light years in 1.5 million years time. Doesn’t sound like much? Well, this skirts the edge of our Oort Cloud, that vast reservoir of comets that extends out to about 1.6 light years distant…Gliese 710 stands an 86% chance of breaking this threshold. In addition, a 2007 review of Hipparcos data by Vadim V. Bobylev shows that this star may pass as close as 0.02 of a light year, about 50 times farther than the (sometimes) planet Pluto. This could make things really interesting, as Gliese 710 could really stir things up in our Oort cloud. And of course, there is the question of whether or not Gliese 710 has an Oort Cloud of its own. More than likely, this pulse of comets will last for about a several million year span of time. Could our inner solar system have sustained such shocks before? One only has to look at the crater-scarred surface of our Moon to realize the inner solar system has served as a shooting gallery over the eons. The statistical probability of a really (i.e. 1,000 AU) approach is about 1 in 10,000, so don’t max out those credit cards just yet… this uncertainly stems from incomplete knowledge of all the gravitational factors at work. As more sensitive astrometrical platforms, such as ESA’s Gaia spacecraft come online, the nature of the threat from Gliese 710 will be more precisely known. At its closest approach, this inbound star will be about as bright as the red giant star Antares… here’s to the neighbors!

29.04.10-Name a Minor Planet!

(Credit: NASA.gov).

(Credit: NASA.gov).

An object awaits naming!

   Break out those mythological encyclopedias; the Committee for Small Body Nomenclature and the International Astronomical Union wants YOU, the school age public, to name a minor planet. Tomorrow, April 30th will have been one year since the passing of Venetia Burney Phair. At age 11, Miss Burney had the opportunity to suggest a name for the ever-controversial planet Pluto. Fans of this site will remember that she was also the subject of the outstanding documentary film Naming Pluto by director Ginita Jimenez.  Saturday, May 1st will also be the 80th Anniversary of the official adoption of the name Pluto.  Tomorrow, Friday April 30th 2010, a competition entitled Naming X will open to give school children the chance to duplicate Venetia Burney’s feat. Recognition will be first come, first credited, so don’t delay! Also, keep in mind that this is about the children; no bloggers (as jealous as we are!) can crash this party. Categories are detailed on the site for groups and individuals from elementary school age on up, with prizes that would make any astronomy fan blush. The judging panel includes notables such as Astroguyz former next door neighbor David Levy (I heard he’s discovered a comet or two), Professor Ian Morison, and Dr. Marc Buie. Now would be a perfect chance to get the kids excited about Kuiper Belt and Trans-Neptunian Objects, and maybe the whole celestial object naming business.

…And kids, don’t forget to take a few pointers from Venetia and how she accomplished her proposal; the name Pluto was selected from Roman mythology and fit well with the tradition of naming solar system objects. Resist the urge to submit the names of pets, favorite cartoon characters, and the like. And don’t forget, you have a tool that at your cyber-disposal that young Venetia didn’t have, the Internet. Not only will this allow you to scour the respective mythological pantheons, but will also give you the ability to check possible names for originality in astronomical use. Just think, Astroguyz has given you the edge already…beyond that, the rest is up to you. Astroguyz will be following to see what original ideas you come up with. Further instructions are on the site. Names are not to be longer than 16 characters, easily pronounceable, and to be accompanied by a brief justification of not more than 25 words. May the best student and/or group win!

18.04.10- Zeroing in on Nearby Exoplanets.

 

(Credit: NASA/JPL).

(Credit: NASA/JPL).

A scale comparison of a possible Super-Earth.

It’s hard to believe that a little less than two decades ago, no extra-solar planets were known. Now, the count climbs daily, and platforms like the Kepler Space Telescope threaten to launch the tally into the thousands. Recently, an international team of astronomers made six new discoveries in two nearby star systems that may eventually lead towards the cosmic Holy Grail; an exoplanet resembling Earth. The team was led by prolific planet hunter Paul Butler and Steve Vogt, who discovered the super-Earths by combining radial velocity data gathered from the Anglo-Australian telescope and the Keck observatory. First up is 61 Virginis, a Sun-like star 28 light years away. This system has always been of interest to astronomers because it is a near twin to our own Sun and is on the short list for NASA’s Terrestrial Planet Finder. The team discovered three worlds ranging in mass from 5 Earths to 25. In addition, follow-up studies with the Spitzer Space telescope find evidence for a dust ring around 61 Virginis about twice Pluto’s distance from our own Sun. The second discovery is one 7.5 Earth mass planet and a possible two more found around the star HD 1461 in the constellation Cetus about 76 light years distant. Again, HD 1461 could pass for our Sun in terms of age, size, and mass. Both stars would be visible to the naked eye under reasonably dark skies. It remains to be seen if these worlds are rocky terrestrial planets or Uranus-like slush balls. Evidence is mounting, however, that planets may be common around nearby Sun-like stars. The innermost planetary detection for 61 Virginis also represents the smallest amplitude discovery ever made by astronomers. These discoveries were backed up by brightness measurements made by robotic telescopes based in Arizona and operated by Tennessee University’s George Henry. This ruled out the possibility that the amplitude variations seen were due to variability or “starspots”. The Lick-Carnegie Exoplanet Survey Team will also soon have a new weapon in its arsenal; the recently completed Automated Planet Finder (APF) Telescope atop Mount Hamilton. All that’s needed now is for the Discovery Channel to fund a new hit series; The Exoplanet Hunters!

Review: Gardens of the Sun by Paul McAuley.

Out in March from Pyr Books!
Out in March from Pyr Books!
    It was with great anticipation and excitement that we finally got to dig into our advanced reading copy of Gardens of the Sun  by Paul McAuley, out March 23, 2010 courtesy of Pyr BooksGardens picks up where last years’ first opus, The Quiet War, left off, and fans of the series will not be disappointed. The near-future battle for the ultimate direction of humanity spans the solar system as the Three Powers Alliance of Earth struggles to consolidate its hold on the Jovian and Saturnian systems, while the decimated Outers flee into the depths of the exterior solar system. [Read more...]

04.02.10: Pluto Re-imaged.

The brave new face of Pluto. (Credit: NASA, ESA, M. Buie).

The brave new face of Pluto. (Credit: NASA, ESA, M. Buie).

The most controversial planet (or do you say dwarf planet, or plutoid?) got a new look today. In a press conference, NASA researchers revealed the new “face” of Pluto; a series of images spanning 270 degrees of rotation. To complete these, astronomers scoured 384 images for 4 years using no less than 20 computers. These images were acquired from the Hubble Space Telescope’s Advanced Cameras for Surveys, and span a period from 2002-03. Even under the most favorable conditions, Pluto is a tough target; at around 0.1” arc seconds in size, Pluto only covers only a few pixels even in the best cameras and telescopes. The images are in true color, and present a tan-ish to grey world that is perhaps Mars-like in appearance. This is suggestive of a broad diversity of plutonian topography, and comparisons with the 1994 images show correlations with bright surface features, but also changes that hint at seasonal variations. Specifically, Pluto appears significantly redder and shows a magnitude variation of 0.2 magnitudes, which is surprising over a short 8 year span…Pluto takes 248 years to complete one orbit. Charon, Pluto’s large moon, was a good “color test” as it stayed the same throughout both imaging cycles, lending credence to the idea that the changes throughout were real and not an artifact.

Spectroscopic analysis reveals that Pluto is a dynamic world, covered by frozen methane and fluro-hydrocarbons. In fact, it’s suggested that the world may be a twin to Triton, Neptune’s largest moon. “Certainly, the Kuiper Belt is an amazing place,” such researcher Mike Brown, who laughed at the idea that perhaps Pluto was getting redder in anger at him due to its recent demotion. Hubble’s newly installed WFC3 camera will begin imaging Pluto over a five month period starting April 2010, in anticipation of the New Horizons flyby in 2015. And all this on today, Clyde Tombaugh’s 104th birthday! Expect those astronomy text books to be changing soon…

Astro-Challenge: Groombridge 34; a Nearby Red Dwarf Pair!

Groombridge 34; the finder chart. The circle is approx a 1 degree field of view. (credit; Stellarium).

Groombridge 34; the finder chart. The circle is approx a 1 degree field of view. (credit; Stellarium).

Sure, everyone’s heard of Alpha Centauri, but have you ever heard of… Groombridge 34? We came across this little known binary red dwarf pair while perusing Burnham’s Celestial Handbook last month during our write up for M31. Also in the constellation Andromeda, Groombridge 34 is a unique system; a pair of red dwarf flare stars relatively close to our own solar system. At 11.62 light years, its the 16th closest stellar system to our own. The separation of the two stars are about 147 Astronomical units (A. U.s) (for reference, Pluto is about 50 A.U.s from the sun!) in a estimated 2,600 year orbit. [Read more...]

Review:Redshift 7: The Ultimate in Astronomy Software.

Redshift

Availble from Maris technologies! (Credit: Redshift).

Desktop-based planetarium programs have really come into their own in the past few years. From their early evolution in the 1980′s with computer programs written in Basic that would show you stick figure constellations, planetarium programs are now full fledged sky simulators that allow you not only to control your telescope and plan your observing sessions more effectively, but allow you to travel through space as well as time. [Read more...]

Searching for Robert Burnham.

One of the very few existing pictures of Robert Burnham Jr. (Credit: The Robert burnham Jr. Memorial Project).

One of the very few existing pictures of Robert Burnham Jr. (Credit: The Robert burnham Jr. Memorial Project).

Sometimes, the quietest minds among us also have the most to share with the world.

Last month, on a warm summer’s day in August, the East Valley Astronomy Club, in connection with the Robert Burnham Jr. Memorial Fund, honored a man with the dedication of a small plaque placed on the Pluto walk at the Lowell Observatory. That man is probably the most unknown, but influential amateur astronomer of the 20th century; Robert Burnham Jr. a man that but for a singular colossal work, might have passed on into total obscurity. The book is Burnham’s Celestial Handbook, a three volume guide to the wonders of the night sky. [Read more...]

31.08.09: An Edge on Saturn.

Saturn's rings in darkness during the recent August 10th equinox. (Credit:NASA/JPL/Cassini Imaging Team).

Saturn's rings in darkness during the recent August 10th equinox. (Credit:NASA/JPL/Cassini Imaging Team).

A rather odd event is transpiring in the Saturnian system, one that only happens a couple of times in our lifetime; its rings are vanishing. Not really, of course; we are merely passing through the super-fine ring plane as viewed from the Earth. The exact date of the “crossing” as viewed from Earth is Friday, September 4th, when the 20 meter thick rings will be exactly edge on and vanish from all but the largest telescopes. Just a few weeks ago, Saturn passed equinox, when the rings were edge on to the Sun and hence, not illuminated across their 100,000+ km expanse. This happens every 14 to 15 years during the planet’s 29.7 year orbit. [Read more...]

Review: Naming Pluto.

Naming Pluto.

Naming Pluto by Ginita Jimenez (Credit:Father Films).

We here at Astroguyz are always on the lookout for an unheard of astronomical tale. Naming Pluto, a short documentary film by Ginita Jimenez of Father Films tells the intriguing story of how the ever-controversial planet Pluto was first named. It is a very human drama, and one that should be better known than it is. [Read more...]

April 2009 News & Notes.

Kepler.

Kepler’s Launch as seen from Jetty Pier. (Credit: JoanneW./Flickr).

The Successful Launch of Kepler: The Kepler space telescope launched successfully last month on March 6th, during a spectacular night launch. Sporting one of the biggest CCD imagers ever to leave Earth, Kepler is bound for an Earth-trailing, heliospheric orbit. Kepler will spend several months staring at a patch of sky in the direction of Cygnus looking for one of the holy grails in astronomy; Earth-sized, terrestrial planets. Stay tuned! This could be one of the potential discoveries of the year! [Read more...]

Your Chance to Name a Moon!

This is a quick call to arms: astronomer Mike Brown is asking for your help in naming s/1 90482 (2005), a moon of the Kuiper Belt Object Orcus, infamously touted as “the anti-Pluto…”  Mike will be entertaining entries until Sunday, April 5th, 2009…there is already quite a lively banter on his blog linked above!

Our two cents? My top pick would be Vanth, the Etruscan goddess of the dead. This has the advantage of sticking to the underworld mythos as set by Pluto, as well as the Etruscan pedigree set by Orcus…plus Vanth is original and just sounds cool! Another pick could be Lilith, the Mesopotamian demi-goddess, which was once proposed to be a second, hypothetical “anti-moon” of Earth. One down side of Lilith is that a minor planet already shares this name. A final thought would be “Nox”, the Roman counterpart to Nix, one of Pluto’s newly discovered moons…reading through the other comments, there seems to be enough momentum for Vanth to consider it a movement…